AOS Accounting, Organizations and Society Journal

AOS Accounting, Organizations and Society Journal


Introduction to accounting frequently identifies assets, liabilities, and capital as the field’s three fundamental concepts. Assets describe an individual or company’s holdings of financial value. Businesses and organizations use a system of accounts known as ledgers to record their transactions. The general ledger (GL or G/L) is the master account containing all ledger accounts.

This is somewhat similar to the work a financial analyst might do, although a financial analyst will also look at past and current trends in the larger economy, not just your business, to inform their recommendations. The method you use depends on what you need from your business finances. Cash basis is simpler and easier to stay on top of, while accrual offers greater insights for more detail-oriented business owners. The good news is that with the right people, tools, and resources, accounting doesn’t have to be a black hole for your time.

What is Accounting and Why it Matters For Your Business

Capital gains have historically been taxed at a lower rate than ordinary income. A way of measuring how profitably and efficiently assets are being used to produce sales. National professional membership organization that represents practicing CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS (CPAs). The AICPA establishes ethical and auditing standards as well as standards for other services performed by its members. Through committees, it develops guidance for specialized industries.

In addition, financial statements disclose details concerning economic resources and the claims to those resources. Many accountants choose to become CPAs, which requires passing an exam and getting work experience. Positions CPAs hold include accountant, controller, chief financial officer and financial advisor. Basic accounting concepts used in the business world cover revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities.

Affiliated Company

The accounting process includes summarizing, analyzing, and reporting these transactions to oversight agencies, regulators, and tax collection entities. The financial statements used in accounting are a concise summary of financial transactions over an accounting period, summarizing a company’s operations, financial position, and cash flows. Financial accounting refers to the processes used to generate interim and annual financial statements. The results of all financial transactions that occur during an accounting period are summarized in the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement.

  • Process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding achievement of various management objectives such as the reliability of financial reports.
  • The U.S. Tax Court is a legislative court functioning to adjudicate controversies between taxpayers and the IRS arising out of deficiencies assessed by the IRS for INCOME, GIFT, ESTATE, windfall profit and certain EXCISE TAXES.
  • Past-Presidents include Nancy Bagranoff, Bill Beaver, Joel Demski, Kevin Stocks, Mary Stone, Gary Sundem, Pete Wilson, and Jan Williams.
  • Additionally, some financial information necessitates working with hard deadlines, creating longer working hours and a more stressful environment.
  • The work of a private accountant is usually audited by an external accounting firm.

Financial and informational DISCLOSURES required by the SEC in order to comply with certain sections of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934. Some of the more common filings that publicly owned companies must submit are the FORM 10-K, FORM 10-Q and FORM 8-K. Ratio measure of the profits achieved by a firm through its basic operations. Agreement whereby an institution purchases SECURITIES under a stipulation that the seller will repurchase the securities within a certain time period at a certain price. Often used to describe taxes where the TAX rate paid decreases as the TAXABLE INCOME increases. Positive difference that results from selling products and services for more than the cost of producing these goods.

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)

In the United States, most accountants abide by the generally accepted learning curve principles (GAAP) to present a company’s financial information to those outside the company in a format that everyone can understand. There are different sets of accounting standards for companies that operate overseas, as well as for local and state government entities. Cost accounting is often a prerequisite of managerial accounting because managers use cost accounting reports to make better business decisions. It also feeds into financial accounting since costing data is often required when compiling a balance sheet. Accounting is how you get a clear picture of your financial position. It tells you whether or not you’re making a profit, what your cash flow is, what the current value of your company’s assets and liabilities is, and which parts of your business are actually making money.


Activities that occur only periodically, the data involved are generally not part of the routine flow of transactions. The difference between expenses and REVENUES when expenses exceed revenues over a period of time. In addition to the rental payment, the LESSEE assumes all property charges such as taxes, insurance, and maintenance. Also, for tax purposes, an excess of basis over the amount realized in a transaction. The reduction of INVENTORY levels at year’s end below beginning-of-the-year levels for businesses using the LAST IN, FIRST OUT (LIFO) inventory method. Acquisition of a controlling INTEREST in a company in a transaction financed by the issuance of DEBT instruments by the acquired entity.

Risk Averse

Total costs that change in direct proportion to changes in productive output or any other measure of volume. Shares of a corporation’s stock authorized in its charter but not issued. Agreement between DEBTOR and CREDITOR which amends the terms of a DEBT that has little chance of being paid in accordance with its contractual terms.

Why is accounting so difficult?

Accounting isn't always straightforward, sometimes it requires digging for information, piecing things together, and uncovering financial details that aren't obvious, especially when conducting an audit or performing complex tax calculations.

LLC structures allow business owners to separate their personal finances from the company’s finances. As such, owners cannot be held personally liable for debts incurred solely by the company. As used in accounting, inventory describes assets that a company intends to liquidate through sales operations.

Prospective FINANCIAL STATEMENTS that are an entity’s expected financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Method of recording financial transactions in which each transaction is entered in two or more accounts and involves two-way, self-balancing posting. An investment strategy aimed at long-term capital appreciation with low risk; moderate; cautious; opposite of aggressive behavior; show possible losses but wait for actual profits. Brokerage firm account whose transactions are settled on a cash basis. The process of recording financial transactions and keeping financial records.

What math do accountants use?

A strong understanding of mathematics allows accountants to perform financial analysis and make sound decisions in their work. Accountants must understand and use mathematical concepts such as arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and statistics.